Senin, 24 September 2012

what is manga?

Manga (漫画?) are comics created in Japan, or by Japanese creators in the Japanese language, conforming to a style developed in Japan in the late 19th century.[1] They have a long, complex pre-history in earlier Japanese art.[2]







In Japan, people of all ages read manga. The medium includes works in a broad range of genres: action-adventure, romance, sports and games, historical drama, comedy, science fiction and fantasy, mystery, horror, sexuality, and business/commerce, among others.[3] Since the 1950s, manga has steadily become a major part of the Japanese publishing industry,[4] representing a ¥406 billion market in Japan in 2007 (approximately $3.6 billion) and ¥420 billion ($5.5 billion) in 2009.[5] Manga have also gained a significant worldwide audience.[6] In Europe and the Middle East the market is worth $250 million.[7] In 2008, the U.S. and Canadian manga market was valued at $175 million. The markets in France and the United States are about the same size. Manga stories are typically printed in black-and-white,[8] although some full-color manga exist (e.g. Colorful). In Japan, manga are usually serialized in large manga magazines, often containing many stories, each presented in a single episode to be continued in the next issue. If the series is successful, collected chapters may be republished in paperback books called tankōbon.[9] A manga artist (mangaka in Japanese) typically works with a few assistants in a small studio and is associated with a creative editor from a commercial publishing company.[10] If a manga series is popular enough, it may be animated after or even during its run,[11] although sometimes manga are drawn centering on previously existing live-action or animated films[12] (e.g. Star Wars).



The term manga (kanji: 漫画; hiragana: まんが; katakana: マンガ; About this sound listen; English /ˈmɑːŋɡə/ or /ˈmæŋɡə/) is a Japanese word referring both to comics and cartooning. "Manga" as a term used outside Japan refers specifically to comics originally published in Japan.[13] However, manga-influenced comics, among original works, exist in other parts of the world, particularly in Taiwan ("manhua"), South Korea ("manhwa"),[14] and China, notably Hong Kong ("manhua").[15] In France, "la nouvelle manga" has developed as a form of bande dessinée comics drawn in styles influenced by Japanese manga. In the United States, people refer to what they perceive as manga-styled comics as Amerimanga, world manga, or original English-language manga (OEL manga). Still, the original term "manga" is primarily used in English-speaking countries solely to describe comics of Japanese origin.


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